Monday, April 13, 2009

Chief Chuqualataque Doublehead

Chief Chuqualataque Doublehead 1744 - 1807 My 6g Grand Second Cousin Once Removed


Doublehead's Legacy

Perhaps the most interesting of the Cherokee chiefs in the Tennessee Basin of Alabama was Chief Doublehead or Talo Tiske meaning “two heads.” Chief Doublehead established a town on the Tennessee River at the head of Muscle Shoals in 1790. This village sat at the mouth of Blue Water Creek in Lauderdale County.

Muscle Shoals had always been an area of dispute between Chickasaws and Cherokees, though it was known as “Chickasaw Hunting Grounds.” When Doubleheads occupation of Muscle Shoals came into question, Chief George Colbert of the Chickasaws confirmed that Doublehead was at Muscle Shoals by his permission. This new agreement seems less unusual considering that Colbert had married two of Doublehead’s daughters.

Doublehead’s brother was Chief Old Tassel, one of the Cherokees most well-known and beloved chiefs. When he was murdered with the aid of the white mayor James Hubbert, Doublehead went on the rampage, attacking white settlers throughout the Cumberland Mountains of Tennessee. This six year warpath from 1788 to 1794 is well chronicled, and though it was no doubt exaggerated by the afflicted, the chiefs terrible “atrocities” certainly add up to a significant sum. He was even accused of encouraging his warriors to cannibalism of the dead during this escapade.

At the end of his warpath, Doublehead met with President George Washington at the nation’s capital, and he returned a changed man. Though he began to mimic the ways of the whites and built a large cabin, he continued to defend the Cherokees land rights in various treaties until his death. This change of heart was characteristic of the Cherokees during this time, many of whom adopted the manners and customs of the whites. He even went as far as forming the Doublehead Company that leased 1,000 acres to more than 50 white settlers between the Elk River and Cypress Creek.

Doublehead was murdered in a savagely interesting tale chronicled by the famous Indian canoe fighter, Sam Dale. On a trip to a ball game on the Hiwasee River, Doublehead engaged in a series of arguments with two Cherokee warriors and a white Indian trader.

Served under Chief Dragging Canoe

Chief Doublehead was a bloodthirsty Chief who served under Chief Dragging Canoe. He commanded the expedition against Knoxville in 1793.It is said that he traveled to Tennessee near now Athens, Tennessee in 1807 to attend a stick ball game and while there he bragged about having sold Cherokee Lands for a lot of money even though It was a death sentence to do so. He was attacked in the MCIntosh Tavern by Major Ridge,James Vann and Alexander Saunders, where he was wounded and fled to the home of James Black a missionary, where he died. It is said he was a brother to Old Tassel. He was a full blood Chickamauga Cherokee Warrior, as well as Tahlonteeskee, his Brother-in-law.

Death

In the summer of 1807, the Cherokees had a great ball play on the Hiwassee River. This was their national sport, and attracted immense crowds. On this occasion there were more than a thousand Indians present, besides the officers from Hiwassee Fort, and numerous traders attracted by the prospect of selling their merchandise.

The central figure among the Cherokees was the famous Chief Doublehead. Gen. Sam Dale, of Mississippi, then a Georgian Indian trader, who is authority for the following account of his death, knew Doublehead and called upon him. Sam, you are a mighty liar, was his greeting. When Dale demanded why he thus insulted him in public, a smile illuminated his grim face as he replied, You have never kept your promise to come and see me. You know you have lied. He then produced a bottle of whiskey, and invited Dale and the officers present to drink with him. When they had emptied the bottle, he rejected Dale's offer to replenish it, saying, When I am in the white man's country, I will drink your liquor, but here you must drink with Doublehead.

After the game was over a chief named Bone-polisher approached Doublehead and denounced him as a traitor for selling the land of his people. The stolid chief remaining tranquil and silent, Bone-polisher became still more angry, accompanying his abuse with menacing gestures. Then Doublehead spoke, quietly and without agitation: Go away. You have said enough. Leave me, or I shall kill you. Bone-polisher rushed at him with his tomahawk, which Doublehead received on his left arm, and drawing his pistol, shot him through the heart.

Some time after night, Doublehead, who had been drinking, came in to Hiwassee Ferry, and entered McIntosh's tavern. Among those whom he encountered there was a chief named Ridge, afterwards Major Ridge, a half-breed called Alex. Saunders, and John Rodgers, an old white man who had long resided in the nation. Rodgers began to revile him, much after the manner of Bone-polisher. Doublehead proudly rebuked him: You live by sufferance among us. I have never seen you in council nor on the war-path. You have no place among the chiefs. Be silent and interfere no more with me. The old man still persisted, and Doublehead attempted to shoot him, but his pistol, not having been charged, missed fire. The light was then extinguished, and at the same instant a pistol shot was fired. When the light was rekindled, Ridge, Saunders, and Rodgers had all disappeared, and Doublehead lay motionless on his face. The ball had shattered his lower jaw and lodged in the nape of his neck.

His friends now set out with him for the garrison, but fearing they would be overtaken, turned aside, and concealed him in the loft of Schoolmaster Black's house. Two warriors of the Bone-polisher clan traced Doublehead by his blood to his hiding place. At the same time Ridge and Saunders came galloping up, shouting the war whoop. Sam Dale and Col. James Brown, of Georgia, followed them. The wounded chief was lying on the floor, his jaw and arm terribly lacerated. Ridge and Saunders each leveled his pistol, but both missed fire. Doublehead sprang upon Ridge and would have overpowered him had not Saunders discharged his pistol and shot him through the hips. Saunders then made a rush on Doublehead with his tomahawk, but the dying chief wrenched it from him, and again leaped upon Ridge. Saunders seized another tomahawk and drove it into his brain. When he fell another Indian crushed his head with a spade. It is interesting to note that, after the tribe had been removed to the west, Major Ridge was himself executed in the same manner, for a like offense.

The murder of Chief Doublehead August 9, 1807

Cherokee Chief Doublehead is executed by The Ridge, James Vann and Alexander Saunders
It marked the end of an era in the Cherokee Nation and the rise of the republic.

Doublehead had grown powerful by giving Cherokee land to the government through the liberal bribes of Indian Agent Return J. Miegs. The tribal council had made it a crime punishable by death to cede Cherokee land to anyone. Doublehead continued to allow settlers into Cherokee land, and traded holdings with the United States.

Ridge, Vann and Sauders, possibly with the approval of the Cherokee Council, sought Doublehead. The first attempt to kill Doublehead ended when Vann, who was to perform the task, was too drunk. Other attempts followed, but finally Ridge succeeded.
Ironically, Ridge would receive the same punishment for signing the Treaty of New Echota in 1835

66 comments:

  1. doublehead is my 6THgreat grandfather you honor him well,now we got to prove my 5th great grand mother cornblossom was real

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    1. Doublehead is my 5th Great Grandfather through the Shifflett's. Now I am trying to find some Info on his daughter Vina Brock. She married Bland Shifflett.

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    2. I am Doublehead's 16th great granddaughter through Corn blossom. I find it amusing that she is considered almost mythical. Proof would be wonderful but I live by faith in many areas of life and quite enjoy being the descendant of a woman inspires debate. If she never existed then from where & why would the stories of her and descendants of hers have sprung from. I don't doubt & don't care to debate but am empowered by continuing the mythical & mysterious line from which I came.

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    3. I just found info that Chief Doublehead is also my 5th great grandfather on my Shiflett side, through Vina Brock. Vina's mother was shown to be Katherine Napier. I would like to find documentation of this info, if anyone can help.

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  2. Anonymous, we may be cousins. He's my 7th Great Grandfather through Gulustiyu.

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    1. He was also my 6th great grandfather through Gulustiyu.

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    2. He was also my 6th great grandfather through Gulustiyu. :) Through Elizabeth Sarah Riley and the Tackett families.

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    1. Gulustiyu or Cornblossom? Gulustiyu was real. She was my Grandmother, not sure how many generations back.

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  4. ya u know everthing i guess, you probably worship this asshole that goes by vance hawkins

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  5. The Cherokee Doublehead Chiefs were also strongly linked to Canatuckahoe (Kentucky)as well as other Cherokee areas. An example, among many, is Tuckahoe himself is a Doublehead connected Cherokee. Doublehead Cave is in Kentucky, not what is now Tennessee, as well, and several Doublehead Chiefs were born and lived most of their lives, and died in what is now Kentucky. The Upper Cherokee are often left out of the current historical Cherokee record. It is time to to correct the record.

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  6. Thanks 4 posting this story of Chief Doublehead.Family as well as myself have read it. Doublehead Stilell Oklahoma

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  7. im the gggggggrand daughter of cornblossom/ but would love to know more about my hertiage. it is most interesting to me i just found out about my gggggggrand mother my name is cheryl tucker and henreitta tucker.. you my find me at scoonie859093@yahoo.com//or my sisters henriettacarpenter44@yahoo.com thk you any information you can give wil be appericated..........

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  8. cornblossom was real she died at yahoo falls massarce in monticello,kentucky

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  9. Princess Cornblossom is REAL..Period.
    Judy Troxell Sachs

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    1. Yes she was. She was one of my Grandmother's too and so was Big Jake my Grandfather too.

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  10. There are other Doublehead Cave locations, in addition to Kentucky.

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  11. Chief Doublehead is my 7th Great Grandfather. "Kizzie" is my 6th Great Grandmother.

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    1. Chief Doublehead is my 6th great-grandfather and Kizzie is my 5th great-grandmother. Do you have any information about them. I believe Kizzie's mother was Great/Creat "Drags Blanket" Priber.

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    2. No, Kissiah's (Kizzie's is buried in Slickford ky in the Dishman Cemetary. Her mothers name was Aisley of the Red Paint Clan.

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    3. Chief Doublehead is my 7th great-grandfather, with his daughter, Kstieieah (Kissie) as my 6th great-grandmother. Her first-born son, Thomas jefferson Dishman is my 5th great-grandfather. I would love to meet/talk to my Doublehead cousins. If you would please contact me at beverlyscrafts@frontier.com, I would appreciate it.

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    4. Kizzie is my ggggggrandmother.

      Thomas Jefferson Dishman (Lydia Upchurch)->Burrell Dishman (Louiza Elizabeth Upchurch) -> Lucinda Dishman (George Dishman) and Marcus Dishman (Serlida Smith) -> George Dishman (Lucinda Dishman). Burell and Marcus were brothers. Lucinda and George were cousins. -> Elijah Barton Dishman (Sarah Ann Abbott) ->Ollie Ann Dishman (Burl Tillmon Dishman)

      ALSO Thomas Jefferson Dishman (Lydia Upchurch)-> Sinah Dishman (Riley Brown, she kept Dishman name) -> John Dishman (Mary Ann Morgan) -> Silas Marion Dishman (Elizabeth Hancock) -> Burl Tilmon Dishman (Ollie Ann Dishman). Burl and Ollie were cousins a couple times over.

      Burl and Ollie-> Edith Dishman, my GGrandmother (Daniel Roy Buck) -> Donvil Buck (Emojene Ward) -> Benjamin Buch (Karen Johnson) -> ME

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  12. my name is chris mason
    my website www.fastlife9940203@yahoo.com
    cheif doubleheads son birdtail doublehead is my second great grandfather and bird doublehead is my great grandfather

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  13. Anon Feb 16, 2011, please email me at princesschrissey@aol.com. Kizzie I believe is also my husbands 6GG, and I'm trying to prove she was DH dau. Thanks, any info is appreciated!!

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  14. How is Seqouyah (George Gist) related to Amadoya Moytoy?

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    1. Some Gists were with D. Boone in his early days high on the Upper Kentucky River, near the present Virginia border, at places like Acup Creek, in Perry County, probably connected to the herbal trade in the area. Cherokee guides often showed Boone the Cherokee back country and Overhills Region and Upper Tribe areas. Doublehead Creek is in present Clay County, KY, for example. The Cherokee Kings made money from the herbal trade, among other business ventures and early on were paid lease fees by white pioneers. The Dr Dishman Combs linked Cherokee families of the Acup, KY,area,sometimes called Mill Seed Community, near Happy, seem to have Gist and Sequoyah links. martin redbird, cherokeeempire.bravehost.com

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    2. Thanks for your comments, Martin. You know so much about so much!

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    3. I no a lot about the medicine. My great great grandmother Eliza Elizabeth hall a.k.a Eliza Quedi had over 4000 different herb and med from back then we still have those papers today Eliza was bird tails doubleheads wife

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  15. Seqouyah is cheif doubleheads sister son,and Amadoya Moytoy is cheif doublehead and his sisters grandad

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  16. chris mason/doubleheadOctober 27, 2011 at 10:02 AM

    Old tassel got killed in athens alabama he was asleep in his teepee when some house got raided by some war parties and one of the houses the family was killed but there son was not there at the time it happen so he thought it was cheif Old Tassel so the little boy snuck in his tent and killed old tassel then when cheif doublehead found out about it he went on a war path and was killing everybody in site

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  17. A Bird Doublehead turns up as an inscription at an ancient Central American site that was "discovered" by Spanyards in the early Colonial era of Central America. Very little serious research on the finding has been conducted. Did the early Spanyards come to Cherokee Tribe with Doublehead Chief connections linked to the Gold Trade similar to the Inca? cherokeeempire.bravehost.com

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  18. Regarding the above, one version of the inscription is Birdtail Doublehead instead of Bird ...

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  19. My name is Savanna I am also descended from Cornblossom and Doublehead. Ive been doing much research on them, when my great grandmother was alive she did a lot of research on Cornblossom and Doublehead and she wrote a book, it was never published but it is in my posession. Cornblossom is my 6th great grandmother, and Doublehead is my 7th great grandfather. if you would like to contact me http://facebook.com/SavannnaMarie I am so excited to find relatives!

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    1. Hello, My name is Sue. I am also a descenant of Chief Doublehead. He is my 3rd great grandfather. I am researching him and I am trying to find as much true docementation as I can. Would it be possible to get a copy of your grandmothers records.Please email me facebook.com/​scbrown52 Thank you in advance. (Bird Doublehead the son of Doublehead was adpoted by My 4th great grandfater Thomas Norris Clark)Lie you it is so exciting to find these relatives. My father always talked about our Indian Descendants but never had any docements for proof. My father died in 1980 and it means so much to have found proof and get to see the pictures of my Indian Descendants that my father never saw.

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    2. Hey Sue,
      I have a public tree on Ancestry.com. It is Thelma Roxanna Reed and anyone can look at it. You will find just about all the information I have gathered there. Hope it helps.
      Sharon

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    3. Sue, I am also a direct descenant of Thomas Norris Clark and his wife Susannah Randolph Payne. I am trying to write a history of TN Clark and Susannah , you are the first person who has refered to Birdsong as being adopted by TNC,I knew he was liviing in the clark house when Doublehead was murdered, and was returned to his family in Mussel Shoals, any information you can furnished would be greatly appricated, i have a clark family tree with over 850 names and 250 families that I will share.Please Contact me at jpmorgansr@hotmail.com

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    4. Hi Sue & J,P, Morgan.....this is the first info I have seen about an adopted with a Clark.
      My grandfather is Bud J Clark, his dad Jefferson Carlton Clark, his dad Pleasant William Clark & mom Hannah Hulda Carolyn Tharp Clark, daughter of Hezekiah Tharp & Nancy Ellen Colbert, daughter of Chief George Colbert & Shulachee/Salechi Doublehead.

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    5. Brenda, sorry to disappoint you but none of the Clark Names you list above are related to Thomas Norris Clark, he had 11 living children and I have traced all their decendents. Also Sue has not answered me about the so called adoption of Birdsong by Thomas N Clark. ( Sorry Sue" it never happened). I have records showing that after the estate of Doublehead was settled,that Birdsong was taken to Mussle Showles to be with Doubleheads wife who was living there. I will gladly let you or Sue be a Guest and be able to see the Family Tree. Contact me by E-Mail at jpmorgansr@hotmail.com and I will send you an invite thru Ancestory.com OK? I have over 1300 names and 300 families.

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  20. I am just blown away...I just recieved a lett from a second cousin that connects my family with Cornblossom and Doublehead.....not sure how or where to go from here, but will do some more reading and hopefully in a less emotional moment be able to come back and hopefully talk with you more....
    Kachenahey ahseeahney

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  21. There are three different reported burial places for Chief Doublhead;

    1. Near his death place up at the Hiwassee (marked).

    2. At Doublehead Cave in Kentucky (marked).

    3. On the north side of US HWY 72, on Bluewater Creek, Lauderdale County, AL.

    Any idea which one is, most likely, the correct place?

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    1. Cheif Doublehead is Buried in Wayne County Ky. Directions. he is buried near the pulaski count line. Directions from Somerset KY mall. Take us 27 south to Hwy 90 west. Cross the big steel bridge over lake cumberland. Then turn left on Hwy 790. Drive till you come to the Wayne county line. You will come to the first house on the right on a hill . It has Doubleheads Stone and grave in a small area behind the house.

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    2. One way to look at Chief(s) Doublehead is as a family group. There are various "Chief Doublehead" individuals, related by family and/or band. The top chiefs sometimes acted for each other in the chiefs name with his consent, much like an assistant chief today in Cherokee Nation. We should give the Doublehead Chiefs numbers to track them each as individuals. A good place to start is Doublehead Creek in present Clay County, KY, southeast Kentucky. Some of these folks images are painted into the Kentucky Capitol building dome. Cherokee Tribe is the official tribe of Kentucky. cherokeeempire.bravehost.com

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    3. north of us hwy 72 in lauderdale county alabama just off the tennessee river,north of the mouth of Bluewater,my great grandfather was a grandson of doublehead

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  22. This is so amazing! I am another Sue, that heard from her father of native relatives, but no proof. Everyone, go to Ancestry.com. I am the 9th ggranddaughter of Thomas Carpentar that came from England. He and his Shawnee wife Pride are the beginning of all of us on line tonight. The history is sadly true. Our relatives were treated terribly. You can find info on my open site, Brock Family Tree. I am direct relative of Chief Aaron Redbird Brock. I found this site tonight just by accident, reading about "Uncle Doublehead". Susan Brock, Bend Oregon

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    1. The North family show to be kin to Chief Redbird Aaron Brock Can you help me find our roll no. I don't know how to prove this you can Face book me a message or friend me.thank you.Ann Speck

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    2. I was always told that Chief Red Bird was our great grand father several greats back. After doing some research, I joined a site of the descendants, but didn't get to find out much, my own sister had me blocked from the site. I guess she was afraid I would tell them about her secrets. I just wanted to know more about my heritage. Guess that won't happened now, Gayla Brookman has blocked me at every turn and I don't know why.

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  23. This post is an eye opener. I have read in other post that Bone polisher was to be punished for a crime of brutalness that he committed against his wife. The Cousin of Creat Priber one of the 3 of Chief Doubleheads wives. Creat Priber, Nancy ( Drum doogler)?, and Aisley of the Red paint clan.Chief Doublehead was the Marshall in town and went to take care of this at the Bone polishers resident. Then on the way back he stopped in at the bar and was murdered by the Ridge and the other guy for Selling Cherokee land illegally. Which he didn't do. The proof is in the pudding. Doublehead fought and was greatly feared for the land. Miers, The Ridge and all the other so called grand cherokee got busted as noted above. It's a fact that till today, out in Oklahoma The Cherokee still think Cheif Doublehead took the bribes. The fact is that the White man couldn't touch him, so they lied to protect the real theives like Ridge, and who else? Honor goes to Doublehead My 5th Grandpa. I am the oldest left in my family with many stories of old.

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    1. hello i am on ancestry and my sister and i have come back with our dna matching doublehead and the moytoy indians wolf clan, also my ggggrandfather was francis poythress that was the father of jane poythress who married thomas rolfe who was the son of john rolfe and pochanotas? sorry all this is new to me everyone has always told me i looked to have indian in me. we were told we had cherokee up the line. we have the following surnames that i suspect may be of the cherokee. richard pace a ggggrandfather of mine. we also have ross,white,pace just a few to mention. me and my two sisters have matched with the moytoy indians and i dont know where to begin to look could you give me some clues. also my sister matched with princess cornblossom and i have connected also with about 10 families saying they are related to daniel boone.
      linda northrup sturgill

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    2. Whites they are a lot in the family chicamauga Cherokee
      creek.Chickasaw.delware.irqouin.Choctaw and a few more nations we were the strong hold for the Cherokee and the creek and so on our war camp started in Chattanooga on the edge of the river and became to be over 100.000 braves

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    3. Did you know Pocahantas was a nickname as a little girl? Her real name was Matoaka.

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  24. Does anyone know how Chief Doublehead was related to the Nevels family in Wayne County, Ky. I have always heard that he got his name because he was born with two heads, not because of his personality. I've heard this from many older people in Wayne County.Does anyone know for sure?

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    1. I do not think he is but I am not sure who his fathers side was, the two heads is because of the golden chest our family took off hernando de soto,when he came to alabama, and gave the chest to the chickasaw indians, they took it to the chief and hence all the "Double Head" names. It made our chief Double Head undefeatable so our family legend says. According to my great great grandmothers, if a person touched it, they would die. But, if you was in possission of it, you were great in battle.I am his 8th great grand son, I sit on his seat as Chief TwoChief in our family Cherokee Indian Nation

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  25. The United states of America does Not have the right to say that we are not completely sovereign because we depend on domestics, "Oh YEAH, LIKE WHAT? YOUR land, sir? You take somebody in, teach them to hunt, fish, plant, build, ride horses, Herbal medicine, everything they could not do on there own, because they were running away from there own land because they didnt want to follow Englands laws.
    So we took there diseases on ourselves trying to help them survive. For our effort, we are led out in a trail of tears, the great INDIAN REMOVAL ACT, A DAM ACT OF WAR AND WAR CRIME! Traitors! The North Union has no treaties with the Cherokee or the Chickasas Indians, my family. No, you killed my great grand father, Chief Double Head, and drove my family into the ground, sir! You Stole our land! No, sir, you cannot put up a fence to keep our mexican brothers off of there own land, our land! If the USA doesnt work out, Oh well, right? You can always go home, where do the Native Americans go? We've been here for ten thousand years, not you. No, sir, you ruined our land, North Union! The South could do better than this! And FYI, rich bankers didnt build america, Black African Americans did!

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  26. The truth is more like, James vann was lying about under the table land deals with the chief, whom they picked because of his lack of education, as he didnt believe in it.HE WAS NEVER BRIBED! When DoubleHead got wind of it, he rode up to the Hiwassie rivers cherokee nation agency to whip and kill the drunkard coward liar, back shooting pig james vann.Whom shot the chief in the back in the tavern as he stood at the bar, and then had to fight him all the way to an attic of a school teachers house, where they knifed him to death slowly.No war, just murder. The cherokee indians had active peace treaties with the white settlers when they committed the Indain Removal Act.That voided all that hopewell sh**. COWBOYS AND INDIANS AGAIN!

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    1. It was my great great granddad bird tail double head and his half brother james foreman and che if Ross that killed cheif ridge

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  27. https://plus.google.com/u/0/105733743304222020862?tab=wX#105733743304222020862/posts

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  28. Bird tail doublehead and Elizabeth vann also known as james mason and Elizabeth hall is my great great grandfather and great great grandmother

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    1. Anonymous, I am a direct descenant of Thomas Norris Clark and his wife Susannah Randolph Payne. I am trying to write a history of TN Clark and Susannah , I knew Birdsong was liviing in the clark house when Doublehead was murdered, and was returned to his mother Nancy Drumgoole in Mussel Shoals, any information you can furnished would be greatly appricated,TNC was also supposed to be an Executor with two others for Chief Doubleheads estate. And had 20 year lease on the property on the Clinch River, and was paying the Chreokees 600 pounds a year for safe passage to Carthage from Kingston
      i have a clark family tree with over 850 names and 250 families that I will share.Please Contact me at jpmorgansr@hotmail.com.

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  29. There is. a lot of people we are kin to Wilson.green.whites and clarks but they only took care of my great great grandfather bird tail double head until he was 12yrs old because when cheif double head died the Wilsons did not take care of him they just got what they wanted and left him behind that when the Clark took care of him the Clark that took him in was Thomas Norris Clark but I can.t name all because there is a lot

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    1. Hello, I am just researching double head connection to possibly more than one side of My familes. My direct dedcent names are: scott, patillo, chisholm/chism/chisum, howard and jones. Who have some intermarried gist, 'clark, wilson, edwards, and childers or childress.va/ky/ala/tennessee/nc/ ga/ texas/ ark/ sequoya county 0klahoma. They were in ky from indian lands by 1800, then to madison/ jackson co. Ala paint rock area. Which the connected jones, scott, edwards, and wilsons married double heads daughters.aisley and rebecca? Also they intermarried gist daughters.

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  30. My great great grandfather bird tail double head killed all the people that signed the treaty in echota one got away and went to California

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  31. I am the fifth great grandson of double head through his first son bird tail my great grand mother was Ruth Mason the grand daughter of bird tail I'm told he changed his name to William Mason to protect his identity do u have info on cheif great eagle I told is double heads father

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  32. Chief Doublehead, along with Cherokee Chiefs Arun Redbird Brock and King Benge, led Cherokee and Catawba allies connected to the Over The Mountain Men at The Battle of Kings Mountain (NC) in a major Patriot victory in the Revolution. The chiefs later turned against the Colonials after numerous attacks at the hands of those like Isaac Shelby. Shelby, the first Governor of Kentucky, led attacks on Indians, and also later claimed to have personally killed Techumseh in Canada. Doublehead, born in present day Kentucky in the Cumberland River country, also called the Techae or Blue River, was also known as an Emperor, since he was a descendant of the Imperial line of Cherokee.

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  34. Thanks to you Chuck for adding this information to The James Scroll. - Sharon

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